Reverse Translate accepts a protein sequence as input and uses a codon usage table to generate a DNA sequence representing the most likely non-degenerate coding sequence. A consensus sequence derived from all the possible codons for each amino acid is also returned. Use Reverse Translate when designing PCR primers to anneal to an unsequenced coding sequence from a related species.

Paste the raw sequence or one or more FASTA sequences into the text area below. Input limit is 20000 characters.

Enter the codon table you wish to use (in GCG format). The default codon usage table was generated using all the E. coli coding sequences in GenBank. It was obtained from the Codon Usage Database.


P. Stothard. The sequence manipulation suite: JavaScript programs for analyzing and formatting protein and DNA sequences. Biotechniques 2000; 28: 1102, 1104.